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并网光伏系统按照交流额定功率的备案

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、适度提高光伏 -逆变器容配比 ( 国际上称之为光伏 -逆变器功率比,PVIR),是并网光伏系统设计重要的技术创新。光伏 -逆变器容配比普遍被光伏行业接受是在 2012 年之后,以美国 First Solar 为代表,该公司电站的容配比一般都选在 1.4:1.0 或更高。提高光伏 -逆变器的容配比后,如何定义并网光伏系统的装机容量显得十分重要。本文将给出国内外对于光伏系统装机容量的定义,并对放开光伏 -逆变器容配比的理由和必要性进行论述。

1提高光伏 -逆变器容配比的必要性

YOUYUWOGUODABUFENDIQU、QUANNIANDABUFENSHIJIANDETAIYANGFUZHAODUDOUHENNANDADAOBIAOZHUNTIAOJIAN,JI 1 kW/m2,ZAIJIASHANGCONGGUANGFUZUJIANDAONIBIANQIDEXIAOLVSUNSHITONGCHANGYUEWEI85%,RUGUOANZHAOGUOQUDEGUANLI,GUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIAN 1:1 JINXINGPEIZHI,NEIMEJIAOLIUSHEBEI ( BAOKUONIBIANQI ) JIUHUIYOUHENDABILIDEGONGLVXIANZHI。BIZHEZAIGEERMU ( SHUYUQIANGⅠLEIZIYUANQU,YOUSHIFUZHAODUSHENZHICHAOGUO 1 kW/ m2) CENGDIAOCHUYIGEGUANGFUDIANZHANNIBIANQIQUANNIANDESHIJIYUNXINGSHUJU,FAXIAN 500 kW DENIBIANQIZUIDASHUCHUGONGLVJINYOU 470 kW,ERQIEDANGSHIDEFUZHAODUYIJINGCHAOGUO 1 kW/m2。NEIMEZAIⅡLEI、ⅢLEIZIYUANQU,JIAOLIUSHEBEIGONGLVXIANZHIWENTIJIANGGENGWEIYANZHONG。

WEILETIGAONIBIANQIJIHOUDUANJIAOLIUSHEBEIDELIYONGLV,SHIXITONGJUYOUGENGWEIYOUHUADEPEIZHI,2012 NIANZHIHOU,GUOJISHANGPUBIANCAIYONGTIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBILAISHIXIAN。

2 以交流额定功率来定义光伏系统的装机容量更为科学合理

SUOYOUQITAFADIANFANGSHI,RUHUODIAN、SHUIDIAN、HEDIAN、FENGLIFADIAN,SHENZHIBAOKUOREFADIAN,DOUSHIANZHAOJIAOLIUFADIANDANYUANDEEDINGGONGLVDINGYIQIZHUANGJIRONGLIANG;SUOYI,RUOJIANGGUANGFUXITONGDEJIAOLIUEDINGGONGLVDINGYIWEIZHUANGJIRONGLIANG,KESHIBINGWANGGUANGFUFADIANXITONGDERONGLIANGDINGYIHEGUANLIFANGSHIYUQITAFADIANFANGSHIXIANGYIZHI。ERQIE,MUQIANDIANWANGGONGSIDUIYUBINGWANGGUANGFUFADIANXITONGBINGWANGTEXINGDEYAOQIUHEKONGZHIYEJINXIANYUJIAOLIUBINGWANGDIAN,BINGMEIYOUGUANLIDAOZHILIUCE,JIANGBINGWANGGUANGFUFADIANXITONGDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGDINGYIZAIJIAOLIUCE,JISHIDIANWANGGONGSIZAIGUANLIFANGSHISHANGBAOCHILEYIZHIXING,ZAIJISHUSHANGYESHIHELIDE。

3提高光伏 -逆变器容配比的安全性

SHIDUTIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIBINGBUYINGXIANGDIANWANGHESHEBEIDEANQUANXING,XITONGYEBUHUIYINCHAOGONGLVYUNXINGERSHOUDAOSUNHAI。IEC BIAOZHUNYIJINGGUIDING,ZAIGAOGONGLVBIQINGKUANGXIA,DANGFUZHAODUJIAOQIANG、NIBIANQIDADAOEDINGGONGLVHOU,JIDADAOBAOHEZHUANGTAI (inverter being saturated),BIXUZHUANRUXIANGONGLVYUNXING (constrained operation),ZHEIZAI IEC 61724-2、IEC 61724-3 HE IEC 62738 ZHONGYOUXIANGXIMIAOSHU。YINCI,TIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIBUHUIYINGXIANGDIANWANGDEANQUANYUNXING,YEBUHUIDUIDIANWANGHENIBIANQIZAOCHENGSUNHAI。

4提高光伏—逆变器容配比的优势

ZAIWOGUODABUFENDIQU,GUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIKEYIANZHAO 1.2:1.0 PEIZHI,ZHEIYANGCHAOZHUANGDEGUANGFUGONGLVJIHUBUHUICHUXIAN“XIANGUANGSUNSHI”(Clipping Losses),KEYIQUANBULIYONG,FADIANLIANGKEZHIJIETISHENG 20%,NIANDENGXIAOLIYONGXIAOSHISHUKEYOU 1500 h TIGAODAO 1800 h;ERKUOZHUANGJINXIANYUZHILIUBUFEN,ZENGJIADETOURUZHIYOUQUANETOURUDEYUE 50%,DAFUTIGAOLEXIANGMUSHOUYI。YINCI,TIGAORONGPEIBISHITIGAOGUANGFUXITONGSHOUYILV、JIANGDIDUDIANCHENGBENHEZAORISHIXIAN“PINGJIASHANGWANG”DEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN,SHIYINGDANGGULIHETICHANGDEGUANGFUXITONGCHUANGXINJISHU。

TIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIHAIYOUYIGEHAOCHU,JIUSHIKEYIJIANGDIXITONGDUIGUANGFUZUJIANDEGUZHANGHESHUAIJIANGLVDEMINGANDU。RUGUORONGPEIBIANZHAO 1:1 JINXINGPEIZHI,YIDANGUANGFUZUJIANFASHENGGUZHANGHUOYICHANGSHUAIJIANG,FADIANLIANGHUILIJIJIANSHAO;ERZAIGAORONGPEIBIPEIZHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHAOBUFENZUJIANCHUXIANWENTI,DUIYUFADIANLIANGDEYINGXIANGBUDA,ZHISHI“XIANGUANGSUNSHI”HUISHAOYIXIE;BINGQIE,SUIZHEYUNXINGSHIJIANLAZHANG(5 NIAN、10 NIAN、 20 NIAN ),GAORONGPEIBIGENGNENGSHIDUDIXIAOGUANGFUZUJIANSHUAIJIANGDAILAIDEFUMIANYINGXIANG,CONGERBAOZHENGXITONGCHIXUMANGONGLVFADIAN。YINCI,SHIDUTIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBISHIYOUBAILIERWUYIHAIDEGUANGFUXITONGCHUANGXINSHOUDUAN,YINGDANGDALITICHANG,ERBUSHIYAZHIDAJI。

5国内限制光伏—逆变器容配比的原因

GUONEIMUQIANBUFENSHENGQUCHUXIAN“YANCHAGUANGFU—NIBIANQIRONGPEIBI”、BUYUNXUGUANGFUKUOZHUANGDEQINGKUANG,ZHEIJIANGCHENZHONGDAJIGUANGFUXITONGDEJISHUCHUANGXIN,ZUAIGUANGFU“PINGJIASHANGWANG”DEBUFA,SHIBUKEQUDE。ZHISUOYICHUXIANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG,YUANYINZAIYU 2012 NIAN GB 50797-2012《GUANGFUFADIANZHANSHEJIGUIFAN》ZHONG 2.1.23 BUFENDUIANZHUANGRONGLIANG (capacity of installation) DEDINGYI:ANZHUANGRONGLIANGWEIGUANGFUFADIANZHANZHONGANZHUANGDEGUANGFUZUJIANDEBIAOCHENGGONGLVZHIHE,DANWEISHIFENGWA (Wp)。YINCI,YAOXIANGFANGKAIGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBI,SHOUXIANBIXUXIUDING GB 50797。

GUOJI IEC DEJIGEGUANGFUJISHUBIAOZHUNZHONGDOUTIDAOPVIR。

1)IEC 62738《DIMIANANZHUANGDEGUANGFUDIANZHANSHEJIDAOZE》ZHONGTICHU“PV power plants are often designed with high PVIR ratios to achieve lower installed cost of energy”,JI,GUANGFUDIANZHANTONGCHANGSHEJICHENGGAOPVIR,YIHUODEDIDEDUDIANCHENGBEN。

2)IEC TS 63019《GUANGFUFADIANXITONGZHENGCHANGYUNXINGLVDEXINXIMOXING》ZHONG 3.13 TICHU“PVPS AC capacity:rated output of a PVPS, or alternatively,its contractually obligated ma designated conditions, commonly expressed inmegawatts (MW). PVPS ratings by aggregated module nameplate are also common”,JIGUANGFUFADIANXITONG(PVPS) DEJIAOLIURONGLIANGDINGYI:PVPS DEJIAOLIURONGLIANGWEIGUANGFUXITONGDEEDINGSHUCHU,HUOZHESHUOGAIRONGLIANGWEIHETONGYUEDINGDEZUIDAGONGLV,CHANGYONGDANWEIWEI MW。JIANGGUANGFUZUJIANGONGLVZHIHEZUOWEIGUANGFUXITONGDEEDINGGONGLVYEHENCHANGJIAN。

YOUCIKEJIAN,GUANGFU—NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIYIJINGZAIGUOJISHANGDEDAORENKE,BINGQIEYIJINGDINGYIZAI IEC DEJISHUBIAOZHUNZHONG,WOMENYINGDANGZAIBIAOZHUNHEDINGYIYUGUOJIJIEGUI,MEIYOULIYOUXIANZHIGUANGFU—NIBIANQIDERONGPEIBI。

6光伏 -逆变器容配比的设定

GUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIBINGFEIYUEGAOYUEHAO,KAIFASHANGYEBUHUISUIYIZENGJIARONGPEIBI,XUYAOYIJUZUIDIDUDIANCHENGBENJINXINGYOUHUA,SHEJIDAODANGDITAIYANGNENGZIYUAN、HUANJINGWENDU、TUDICHENGBEN、ZUJIANHEQITAZHILIUSHEBEIDEJIAGE、XIANGUANGSUNSHI ( ZHUYISHI“XIANGUANGSUNSHI”Clipping Losses or Constrained Operation,BUSHI“QIGUANG”Curtailment)YUSHOUYIPINGHENGDENG,BUTONGTAIYANGNENGZIYUANTIAOJIAN、BUTONGSHEBEICHENGBEN、BUTONGTUDICHENGBENDEZUIYOURONGPEIBIDOUSHIBUTONGDE。ERQIE,TONGGUOSHIJIANHEJINGYANZHENGMING,BINGBUSHIWANQUANMEIYOUXIANGUANGSUNSHIDEXIANGMUDUDIANCHENGBENZUIDI,ERSHIJUYOUYIDINGXIANGUANGSUNSHIDEXIANGMUDUDIANCHENGBENZUIDI、XIANGMUSHOUYIZUIHAO ( JIANXIAWENANLI 2)。 ZUIYOUGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIBINGBUSHIYIGEQUEDINGDESHUZHI,ERSHIBIXUGENJUXIANGMUJINXINGYOUHUA。SUOYI,YEBUYINGGAIGUIDINGRONGPEIBIDEBILI,ERYINGFANGKAIRONGPEIBI,JIKAIFASHANGHESHEJIDANWEITIGONGCHONGFENDECHUANGXINHEYOUHUAKONGJIAN。

7GUOJISHANGDESHIJIANLI

1) ANLI 1:MEIGUODEMOUBINGWANGGUANGFUXITONG,GUANGFU—NIBIANQIRONGPEIBISHEZHIWEI 1.4:1.0。RUTU 1 SUOSHI,DANGGUANGQIANGHENQIANG,NIBIANQIDADAOEDINGGONGLVSHI,JIZHUANRU“XIANGONGLVYUNXING”ZHUANGTAI,BUHUIDUIDIANWANGHENIBIANQIZAOCHENGSUNHAI;ERQIEGUANGFUFADIANQUXIANBUZAISHIBODONGXINGZHUANG,ERSHIHENGGONGLVYUNXING,DUIYUDIANWANGDIAODUGENGYOUHAOCHU。

图1 美国某并网光伏系统某日的发电曲线

2) ANLI 2:GUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIXUYAOZHENDUIBUTONGDIDIAN、BUTONGDIANJIASHUIPING、BUTONGTUDICHENGBENDENGJINXINGYOUHUASHEJI,BINGFEISHIGUDINGBILI,YINCIXUYAO“SONGBANG”,ERFEIXIANDINGYIGEGUDINGBILI,RUTU 2 SUOSHI。

图2不同容配比的收益曲线

2 ZHONG,RONGPEIBISHEZHIWEI 1.2:1.0 SHI,GUANGFUFADIANXITONGDESHOUYIMINGXIANDEDAOTISHENG,DANBINGWEIDADAOZUIJIA;RONGPEIBISHEZHIWEI 1.6:1.0 SHI,SUIRANCHUXIANLEYIDUANSHIJIANDEXIANGONGLVYUNXING,DANSHOUYIQUESHIZUIGAODE。

8JUTIJIANYIYIJIAN

YANGGUANGDIANYUANJINRUGUOJISHICHANGBIJIAOZAO,SHIZUIXIANLEJIEDAOGUOJISHANGPUBIANCAIYONGSHIDUTIGAOGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIDEFANGFALAITIGAOXITONGSHOUYIDEGUONEIGONGSI,CAORENXIANDONGSHIZHANGZAOZAIJINIANQIANJIUDASHENGHUYUYINGJIANGGUANGFUDIANZHANDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGDINGYIZAIJIAOLIUCE,BINGBUYINGXIANZHIGUANGFUZUJIANKUOZHUANG,DANYIZHIWEINENGRUYUAN。WOZAICIZAICIXIANGYINGCAOZONGDEHUYU,QIANGLIEJIANYIJINKUAIXIUDINGXIANGGUANGUOJIABIAOZHUN,QIANGLIEHUYUGEJIZHENGFUBUMENHEDIANWANGGONGSIWEIGUANGFU -NIBIANQIRONGPEIBISONGBANG。

JUTIJIANYIYIJIANRUXIA:

1) BINGWANGGUANGFUDIANZHANHEXITONGDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGANZHAOJIAOLIUFADIANDANYUANDEEDINGGONGLV ( JINIBIANQIEDINGGONGLVZHIHE )BEIAN,TONGSHIDENGJIZHILIUCEEDINGGONGLV ( JIGUANGFUZUJIANEDINGGONGLVZHIHE )。GUOJISHANGMUQIANYESHIDUIGUANGFUDIANZHANDEJIAOLIUGONGLVHEZHILIUGONGLVFENBIEJINXINGBIAOZHU。

2) DIANWANGGONGSIANZHAOJIAOLIUEDINGGONGLVDUIBINGWANGGUANGFUDIANZHANHEBINGWANGGUANGFUXITONGJINXINGGUANLI ( TONGQITAFADIANFANGSHIDEGUANLIMOSHIBAOCHIYIZHI )。

3) YAOQIUBINGWANGNIBIANQIJUBEIDADAOEDINGGONGLVHOUZIDONGZHUANRUXIANGONGLVYUNXINGDEGONGNENG,SUOYOUBINGWANGNIBIANQIXUYAOTONGGUOCIXIANGGONGNENGDECESHI。

4) DUIYUGUANGFU—NIBIANQIRONGPEIBIBUZUOXIANZHI,YEBUZUOGUIDING,LIUJIKAIFASHANGZIXINGJINXINGYOUHUASHEJI。

5) JIRANDUIYUZHILIUCEGONGLVBUZUOXIANZHI,ZHILIUGONGLVBUZUOWEIXIANGMUDEBEIANRONGLIANG,JINZUOWEIDENGJIRONGLIANG,NEIMEDUIYUSHUANGMIANDIANCHIGONGLVDEJIEDINGJIUKEYILINGHUOHENDUO,YINWEISHUANGMIANGUANGFUZUJIANKEYIKANZUOSHIZIRANKUOZHUANG。

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