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户用光伏电站中组件容量与逆变器配比优化分析

1、WENDUZHEJIAN

温度系数是光伏组件非常重要的一个参数。一般情况下,晶硅电池的温度系数一般是 -0.35~-0.45%/℃,非晶硅电池的温度系数一般是-0.2%/℃左右。而光伏组件的温度并不等于环境温度。图1就是光伏组件输出功率随组件温度的变化情况。

BIAO1ZUJIANDIANXINGNENGCANSHUDUIXITONGXIAOLVDEYINGXIANG

ZAIZHENGWU12DIANFUJIN,TUZHONGGUANGFUZUJIANDEWENDUDADAO60SHESHIDUZUOYOU,GUANGFUZUJIANDESHUCHUGONGLVDAYUEJINYOU85%ZUOYOU。WENDUZAOCHENGDEZHEJIAN,KEYIGENJUGUANGFUZUJIANDEWENDUXISHUHEDANGDIDEQIWENJINXINGGUSUAN。

2、GUANGFUZUJIANDEPIPEIDU

SUIRANZUJIANDEBIAOCHENGCANSHUSHIYIYANGDE,DANSHIJISHANGSHUCHUTEXINGQUXIANSHIYOUCHAYIDE,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGDUOGEZUJIANCHUANLIANSHIYINDIANLIUBUYIZHICHANSHENGDEXIAOLVJIANGDI。

TU1 GUANGFUZUJIANSHUCHUGONGLVSUIZUJIANWENDUDEBIANHUA

3、ZHILIUXIANSUN

YIGE1MWDANYUANDEMIANJIDAYUE14000 m²。YAOJIANGZHEIMEDAMIANJIGUANGFUZUJIANFACHUDEDIANSONGDAOYICHUDIFANG,JIUXUYAOHENZHANGDEZHILIUXIANLU。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,ZHILIUXIANSUNKEYIAN2~3%LAIGUSUAN。

4、GUANGFUZUJIANHUICHENSUNSHI

ZAIXIBEIDIQU,YICISHACHENBAOKENENGHUIZAOCHENGFADIANLIANGZHIJIEJIANGDI5%YISHANG;ZAIDONGBU,YANZHONGDEWUMAITIANQISHIGUANGFUDIANZHANJIHUMEIYOUCHULI。XIATUSHIQINGXIQIANHOUGUANGFUDIANZHANDECHULIDUIBI。

TU2 GUANGFUZUJIANQINGXIQIANHOUCHULIDUIBI

5、GUANGFUZUJIANGONGLVSHUAIJIANSUNSHI

GUANGFUZUJIANDESHUAIJIANGUOKUAIYESHIZAOCHENGFADIANLIANGDABUDAOYUQIDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。YIBANCHANGJIACHENGNUOTOULIANGNIANSHUAIJIANBUCHAOGUO2%,10NIANBUCHAOGUO10%,25NIANBUCHAOGUO20%。10NIANHE20NIANDEQINGKUANGZANSHIHAIMEIYOUZHUNQUEDESHUJU,JULEJIE,QIAN2NIANSHUAIJIANZAI2%DEGUANGFUZUJIANBIJIAOSHAO。SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,ZUJIANDEFADIANGONGLVZAIJIANGDI,NIBIANQIDESHURUGONGLVJIANGZHUNIANJIANXIAO。

6、MPPTPIANLISUNSHI

DAXINGDIANZHANTONGGUOHUILIUXIANGJIANGGUANGFUZUJIANDEZHILIUDIANHUIJIZHIJIZHONGNIBIANQI,ERDAXINGNIBIANQIYILAIYUYILUMPPTLAIGENZONG。SHANDIXIANGMUZHONG,YOUYUDIQUDIXINGFUZA,PINGDIHENSHAO,WUFAZUOTUDIPINGZHENG,DIANCHIBANCHAOXIANGGEYI;BUTONGZUJIANDAOHUILIUXIANGJULICHAYIHENDA,HUILIUXIANGZHINIBIANQIDEJULIYEYOUHENDACHAYI,ZHEIDOUJIANGYINGXIANGNIBIANQIDESHURUGONGLV。

7、XITONGDEPRZHI

TONGGUOSHANGSHUGEHUANJIEDESHUAIJIAN,ZONGJIECHUGUANGFUDIANZHANDEPRSUNSHISHIYITURUTU3SUOSHI:

TU3 GUANGFUDIANZHANPRSUNSHISHIYITU

CONGZHEIZHANGTUZHONGWOMENKEYIKANDAO,CONGGUANGFUZUJIANDAONIBIANQI、XIANGBIANZHIJIAN,YOUHENDUOHUANJIEDECHULISUNSHI。CONGXIANGBIANCHULAIYIHOU,ZHIYOUYIXIANGJIAOLIUXIANSUN。JIASHEZHENGGEDIANZHANDEPRWEI84%(YIJINGSUANBIJIAOGAOLE,YIBANDIANZHANHENNANDADAO)。

二、光伏组件容量与逆变器最佳匹配

XIATUSHIGANSUWUWEI(WOGUOZIYUANZUIHAODEDIQUZHIYI)5YUE19RI(QUANNIANFADIANLIANGJIAOGAODEYUEFEN)YIGE1MWFADIANDANYUANDECHULIQUXIAN(YINYONGZIWANGSICHENGLAOSHIDEPPT)。TUZHONGDEDANWEIWEIKW。

GANSUWUWEI2012NIAN5YUE19RIDANGTIANDECHULIQUXIAN—WANGSICHENGPPTTIGONG

TU4 GANSUWUWEIBUTONGYUNXINGFANGSHI1MWGUANGFUFADIANDANYUANCHULI

KEYIKANCHU,GUDINGSHIXIANGMU,1MWCHULIZUIGAODESHIHOUYEJIU0.82MW,ERQIENENGDADAO0.8MWCHULIDESHIJIANDAGAIZHIYOU2GEXIAOSHI。

JIUGUDINGSHIERYAN,JISHIZAITAIYANGNENGZIYUANZUIHAODEDIQU,GUANGFUZUJIANZHENZHENGNENGJIESHOUDAO1000W/m2YISHANGDEFUZHAODU,SHIJIANDAGAIYEJIUZHONGWU1DIANQIANHOUDE1~2GEXIAOSHI(ERQIESHIZAICHUNQIUTONGFENGXIAOGUOHAO,ZUJIANWENDUBUSHIHENGAODEQINGKUANGXIA)。CISHI,GUANGFUZUJIANKEYISHIXIANMANFA,ERQITADABUFENSHIHOU,YOUYUFUZHAODUDI,GUANGFUZUJIANDESHUCHUGONGLVDOUBIZHUANGJIRONGLIANGDIHENDUO(RUTUZHONGDEHUANGXIAN)。ZHEIYEJIUJIESHILE,WEISHENMETU1ZHONG1MWGUDINGSHIDEZUIGAOCHULIZHIYOU0.82MW。

JIADINGDIANZHANDEPRWEI84%,NEIMEGUANGFUZUJIANSHUCHUGONGLVDE0.84(PRZHI)/0.97(NIBIANQIXIAOLV)/0.98(JIAOLIUXIAOLV)≈88%CAINENGDAODANIBIANQI,YINCI,JISHIZAITAIYANGNENGZIYUANTIAOJIANHAO,GUANGFUZUJIANMANFADEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHILIUCESUNSHIYEHUIDADAO12% 。YI100KWNIBIANQIWEILI,NIBIANQIYUNXUSHURUDEZUIDAGONGLVWEI110KW,FANTUIGUANGFUZUJIAN110/0.88=125KW。YISHANGQINGKUANGWEIKAOLVZUJIANSHUAIJIANQINGKUANG,RUOANZHAO5NIAN5%SHUAIJIAN,10NIAN10%SHUAIJIAN,NEIMEZUJIANSHURUNIBIANQIDEGONGLVYEZAIZHUNIANDIJIAN。YINCI,RUGUOGUANGFUZUJIAN:NIBIANQI=1:1SHI,NIBIANQIRONGLIANGJIBENDOUSHIDAFULANGFEIDE。

三、组件容量:逆变器=1.2:1是否合适?

XIATUSHIQINGHAIDIQU(CHUXIZANGWAI,ZIYUANZUIHAODEDIQU)9YUE13RIGUANGFUZUJIANSHURUHENIBIANQISHUCHUGONGLVTU(TUPIANLAIZIWANGSICHENGLAOSHIDEPPT)。

TU5 GUANGFUZUJIANSHURUHENIBIANQISHUCHUGONGLVTU

YOUSHANGTUKEZHIGUANGFUZUJIANPVSHURUWEI500KWSHI,NIBIANQIDESHURUGONGLVWEI460KW,NEIMENIBIANQIDEZUIDASHURUGONGLVWEIQIEDINGRONGLIANGDE1.1BEI,JI550KW,NEIMEFANTUIGUANGFUZUJIANDEZUIDAZHIWEI550*500/460=598KWYUEDENGYU1.2BEIDENIBIANQIDEEDINGGONGLV。YINCIKEYIDECHUZUJIANRONGLIANG:NIBIANQI=1.2:1。GAIDIQUSHUYUTAIYANGNENGZIYUANYILEIDIQU。

LINGWAIFUBIAOBEIPIAO10MWDAXINGBINGWANGDIANZHANSHUJUBIAOJINSANGEYUEDESHUJUXIANSHI,JISHISHUCHUZUIDAGONGLVCHAOGUO8MWDEQINGKUANGZHIYOU8TIAN,NEIMENIBIANQIDESHURUJIBENSHANGMEIYOUJITIANNENGDADAO8MW(NIBIANQISHURUGONGLV×NIBIANQIXIAOLV=NIBIANQISHUCHUGONGLV),ERQIESHIZAIZHONGWUDEYILIANGGEXIAOSHI,9YUEFENSHIYINIANZHONGFADIANLIANGJIAOGAODEYUEFEN,ERQIEBEIPIAOYESHUTAIYANGNENGZIYUANYILEIDIQU。

ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,DABUFENTAIYANGNENGZIYUANYILEIDIQUKEYICAIYONGZUJIANRONGLIANG:NIBIANQI=1.2:1BILIXUANPEI,ERLEIYIXIADIQUJUNCAIYONGCIPEIBI。

DANGRAN1.2BEIYUNIBIANQIDEGUANGFUZUJIANSHURUHENDUOQINGKUANGXIAKENENGSHIGELINJIEZHUANGTAI,ZHEIXUYAOGENJUBUTONGDIQUTAIYANGNENGZIYUANCHENGDUJIZUJIANQINGJIAOBAIFANG,HUANJINGDENGYINSUZONGHEKAOLV。DANGCHUXIANNIBIANQIDESHURUGONGLVDAYUBIAOCHENGGONGLVDEQINGKUANGSHI,KEYIDUINIBIANQIDEMPPTGENZONGJINXINGSHEZHI,DANGSHURUGONGLVDAYUBIAOCHENGGONGLVSHI,BUCAIYONGMPPTGENZONG,NIBIANQIWANQUANBUHUISHAOHUI(TONGGUOZIXUNNIBIANQIFANGMIANDEZHUANJIA)。

四、经济分析

WEILESUANQINGCHU,XIANLAIYIYIGE50MWpGUANGFUDIANZHAN(JIAN110kVSHENGYAZHAN)WEILI,KANYIXIAGUANGFUDIANZHANTOUZIDEGOUCHENG。

WOBAGUANGFUDIANZHANDETOUZIDAGAIGUINACHENG10XIANG。DANGGUANGFUZUJIAN:NIBIANQI=1.2:1SHI,NEIQIAN5XIANGDEFEIYONGHUIZENGJIA,HOU5XIANGJIBENBUBIAN。

BIAO2GUANGFUDIANZHANTOUZIGOUCHENG

CONGSHANGBIAOKEYIKANCHU,BILIZENGDAHOU,ZONGZAOJIAZENGJIALE50WANYUAN。

LINGYIFANGMIAN:500KWGUANGFUDIANZHAN,ZONGHEXIAOLV80%,SHOUNIANDENGXIAOLIYONGXIAOSHISHU1800,NIANFADIANLIANG72WANKWh。

RUGUODANJIANGGUANGFUZUJIANZENGJIA20%,ZE600KWGUANGFUDIANZHAN,ZONGHEXIAOLV80%,SHOUNIANDENGXIAOLIYONGXIAOSHI1800,NIANFADIANLIANG86.4WANKWh。LILUNNIANZENGSHOU:(86.4-72)*0.9=12.96WANYUAN(AN0.9YUAN/kWhKAOLV)。

RUGUOGUANGFUZUJIANAN10NIANSHUAIJIAN10%,25NIANSHUAIJIAN20%KAOLV,ZEGAIGUANGFUDIANZHAN25NIANPINGJUNDEMANFAXIAOSHISHUWEI1598。XINZENG100KWGUANGFUZUJIANNIANJUNFADIANLIANGWEI12.784WANKWh。ZAICIJICHUSHANGJISUAN:XINZENG50WANYUANDETOUZIHUISHOUQIJINWEI500000/(127840*0.9)=4.3NIAN,DADADIYUCHANGGUIGUANGFUDIANZHAN8NIANDETOUZIHUISHOUQI。

五、结论

1、GUANGFUZUJIAN:NIBIANQI=1.2:1ZAIJUEDADUOSHUGUANGZIYUANYILEIDIQUJIERLEIYIXIADIQUSHIYIGEZUIJIABILI。

2、DANGNIBIANQIDESHURUGONGLVDAYUQIBIAOCHENGRONGLIANGSHI,NIBIANQIJIANGBUZAIJINXINGMPPTGENZONG,BUHUIBEISHAOHUI。

3、GUANGFUZUJIAN:NIBIANQI>1.2:1SHI,DANGCHUNQIURIZHAOFUSHEQIANGDUGAO,TONGFENGHAODEQINGKUANGXIA,NIBIANQIYITIANZHONGDEMOUGESHIDUANSHURUGONGLVHUICHAOCHUQIBIAOCHENGZHI,CISHINIBIANQIBUHUIJINXINGMPPTGENZONG,HUIYOUQIGUANGXIANXIANG。YINGZONGHEFENXIQIGUANGLVJITOURUCHANCHUBILAIQUEDINGGUANGFUZUJIANYUNIBIANQIDEBILIGUANXI。

YUANBIAOTI:ZUJIANRONGLIANGYUNIBIANQIPEIBIYOUHUAFENXI